In a previous article, I described how to create a Masterless Puppet workflow with Capistrano. In this article, I'll show how you can use Vagrant for Masterless Puppet.
Since Capistrano works over SSH, it can be used to control any type of server – from bare metal to LXC containers. However, the workflow can be a bit complex. Vagrant provides a simpler workflow, but you're limited to the server providers compatible with Vagrant. Pros and Cons.
- Prerequisites and Dependencies
- Vagrant's Puppet Provisioners
- Configuring Vagrant
- Vagrant Up
Prerequisites and Dependencies
For this article, I'm using Vagrant 1.5.2 and vagrant-openstack-plugin to enable Vagrant to launch virtual machines inside OpenStack. The virtual machine that Vagrant launches will be running Ubuntu 14.04.
Despite these choices, though, the methods described in this article should be applicable to any Vagrant-based server as long as Vagrant's Puppet provisioner is compatible with it.
Vagrant's Puppet Provisioners
Out of the box, Vagrant supports provisioning servers with both Puppet Apply and Puppet Agent. Since this is a Masterless Puppet workflow, I'm going to be using Puppet Apply.
Vagrant's documentation does an excellent job at describing how to use the Puppet Apply provisioner. The only gotcha I found is that Puppet must be installed on the Vagrant-based virtual machine before Puppet Apply can be used. Maybe I just missed that bit in the documentation.
For this article, I'll create a simple Vagrant environment that will create a virtual machine and have Apache installed onto it. The virtual machine will be launched inside OpenStack, have Puppet installed via the Shell provisioner, and have Apache installed by the Puppet Apply provisioner along with Hiera and the Puppetlabs Apache module.
Below is the completed
Vagrantfile defines a Hiera configuration called
hiera.yaml located in the same directory as the
Here's the contents of
This tells hiera to look for a file called
common.yaml in the
/vagrant/hiera directory on the newly provisioned virtual machine. On the Vagrant-side, everything is in the same directory as the
The contents of
common.yaml will simply be:
The first line sets the
serveradmin setting for Apache and the second line sets an arbitrary message for later use.
The Vagrant Puppet Apply provisioner supports hosting modules. In the
Vagrantfile, the module path is configured as
To install and configure Apache via Puppet, I'm going to use the
puppetlabs/apache module. This module requires the
puppetlabs/concat modules, so in total, three modules will be used:
The final component is an actual Puppet manifest. By default, Vagrant looks for
./manifests/default.pp which is exactly what I'll use:
The first line installs and configures apache using the default settings from the
puppetlabs/apache module except for the
serveradmin setting which was defined in Hiera as
The second line prints a message stored in Hiera just as another way to show that data is successfully being pulled from Hiera.
The Final Directory Structure
With everything in place, the directory structure should look like this:
Now simply run
vagrant up and watch Vagrant go to work!
If you're using a provider other than VirtualBox, like the OpenStack provider used in this article, don't forget to specify it on the command line:
This article showed how Vagrant can provide a Masterless Puppet workflow. Besides the non-default OpenStack provider used, all other features shown in this article are native to Vagrant. This makes it very easy and accessible to use Puppet within Vagrant. The downside, though, is that the servers you can provision in this way are limited to the providers available for Vagrant. If this is a blocker for you, consider using something like Capistrano and building your own Masterless Puppet workflow.
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